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Geometry Today

hello guys it’s great to be back. Today I am going to talk about one of the most hated topic especially but school students but probably one of the most interesting topics when we dig deep into the subject.

Math and many of its aspects are a major part of everyday life. We spend the majority of our school years studying and learning the concepts of it. Many times, the question of ‘why do we need to know these things?’ has been asked. So, in this article I am going to emphasise on the development of one subconcept of mathematics which is called “geometry” and it’s ever growing usage.

‘Geometry’ technically means ‘measure of the earth’. Geometry is the mathematics of the properties, measurement, and relationship of the points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids.    Pythagoras emphasised the study of musical harmony and geometry. His theorem was that the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the other two sides. Johannes Kepler, formulator of the laws of planetary motion is quoted as saying, ‘Geometry has two great treasures: one of them is the theorem of Pythagoras, the other the division of a line into mean and extreme ratios, that is the Golden Mean.’ As time moved on new concepts came out from various scientists.

An ancient Greek mathematician, named Euclidean, was the founder of the study of geometry. Euclid’s Elements is the basis for modern school textbooks in geometry. He created various axioms and postulates which then went on to shape modern geometry. His axioms and postulates were less of mathematics and more of mere common sense and simple logic. One such postulate was the parallel postulate: “That, if a straight line falling on two straight lines make the interior angles on the same side less than two right angles, the two straight lines, if produced indefinitely, meet on that side on which are the angles less than the two right angles.” People like Euclid and Pythagoras stated geometric concepts way before modern geometry had evolved and their theories formed a basis for modern geometry to develop. However, once various scientists came and went fresh ideas and approaches were needed to keep up with the quickly evolving science.

Some notable contributors to geometry were Rene Descartes, Isaac Newton, Leonhard Euler, and Albert Einstein.

Rene Descartes invented the methodology of analytic geometry, also called Cartesian geometry after him, which comprises of coordinate geometry as it’s called today. Blaise Pascal worked on projective geometry which is the study of geometric properties that are invariant with respect to projective transformations. This means that, compared to elementary geometry, projective geometry has a different setting, projective space, and a selective set of basic geometric concepts. Leonhard Euler who is considered to be the greatest mathematicians ever was credited for successfully relating algebra to geometry using the graph theory and number theory. Newton and Einstein contributed to develop non-Euclidean geometry and embedded calculus into geometry to find areas and volumes of irregular geometrical shapes.

The reason geometry is such an important part of mathematics is because mathematics is all about visualisation and without a visual idea it would have been nearly impossible to create mathematics as it stands today. To put this into perspective, if a person wants to measure the length between the foot of a ladder lying on a wall and the base of a wall, he would first imagine the scenario and visualise what this would look like which then makes it easier to calculate using the Pythagoras theorem. So, to answer the question asked at the start of this essay ‘why do we need to know these things?’    it is because although geometry may not be directly applied in real life it forms the basis for other mathematical operations.

 

signing off………..Akarsh

The Story of Indian Economics (part 2)

The Reform Period:

The main effect of the balance of payments crisis was the loss of India’s position on the global scale especially in the eyes of the World Bank. India had huge debts to repay and could not do so without the aid of the World Bank and such financial institutions. Also, due to the closed door policy of the government foreign trade was meagre and the foreign investments into the country were well below required levels. The rupee now valued 25.79 against the USD which was a massive devaluation. Like all conventional tales, when all hope is lost, the people need a hero to come to their rescue. Manmohan Singh has very often been criticized for his nonchalant stance as prime minister of India but back then he was the finance minister or “the hero” of India. Under PV Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh’s leadership Indian policies were reinvigorated and major changes were made. The World Bank agreed to give India financial support but in return India had to globalize and liberalize. India agreed to do so and slowly the situation started improving. Some key policies were implemented such as a more capitalist approach by disinvestment of public sector and privatization. Import substitution was removed and taxes were reduced to encourage foreign investments/trade into the country. Importance was given to industrial growth and development of the tertiary sector. All the heavy licensing procedures were abolished and the government trimmed the role of the RBI in regulating the financial sector which resulted in the emergence of various financial institutions. Also, during this time various small scale industries emerged which formed an integral part of the economy in terms of GDP and employment. By the end of Narasimha Rao’s term India was look at the end of the millennium with hope of better things to come.

The Growth Period:

When the hero marks his victory over the villain, the story still has an unfinished part that is the hero and heroine getting together and having a happy ending. Almost a decade later, Manmohan Singh became the prime minister of India. Although, between 2000-2010 India did not see the growth which met its potential but substantial improvement was there.  India’s trade as a proportion of GDP rose from 13.1 per cent in 1990 to 20.3 per cent in 2000. Economic reforms picked up pace in 2000-04 and fiscal deficits trended down after 2002 and there was a based upswing in Indian industrial output and investment from the second half of 2002. India’s Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-07) targeted an annual growth rate of eight per cent. Along with this growth target, the government also laid down targets for human and social development. A reduction of the poverty rate by five percentage points by 2007; providing gainful employment to at least those who join the labor force during 2002-07; education for all children in schools by 2003; and an increase in the literacy rate to 75 percent by March 2007. The GDP too saw a huge upward growth.

At the present, it is the NDA government which is in full swing and India is en-route to becoming an influential and key player in the world economy and continues to improve in the Na Mo era.

The Story of Indian Economics (part 1)

When the British left India and the nation witnessed independence after several decades, the economy was crippled and people were impoverished with the GDP crashing down at staggering rates. The GDP then was a meager 93.7 billion rupees as compared to the present GDP which is 7.376 trillion rupees. This can be attributed to the de-industrialization policy of the colonial government which led to the absence of the secondary sector and reduced India’s status to a mere supplier of raw materials. Also, the tertiary sector in India was almost non-existent, which was another major setback to India’s economic growth.

At this point Indian leaders had to decide which type of economy India was to adopt and in the end although with India’s living conditions and economic situation in a bad shape a socialist economy would have been more ideal, on a long term basis a mixed economy was probably the best option. However, this decision would change India forever. A mixed economy demands a rigid and clear constitution to draw a line between the capitalist and socialist aspects of the economy which in my opinion was one failure of the new government.

Indian economics since independence can be divided into four stages:

  • The Nehruvian and post-independence period (1950-1985)
  • The crisis period (1985-1993)
  • The reform period (1993-1998)
  • The growth period (1998-present)

The Nehruvian period:

This key feature of this era was the closed door policy viz. foreign trade was minimized through import substitution which gave birth to domestic industries and various small scale industries. Although this established an industrial foundation in India the economic growth was less and the aggregate supply went down. At this time India’s economy had a share of 3.8% of the total world income. The government’s aim during this period was recovering from the losses incurred during colonial rule and it emphasized on addressing serious problems such as poverty and unemployment. The government introduces the five year plans to provide a comprehensive strategy to address all the economic problems and aim at economic growth.  Nehru wanted to create a balance between the rural and the urban sectors in his economic policies. He stated there was no contradiction between the two and that both could go hand in hand. He denied to carry forward the age old city versus village controversy and hoped that in India, both could go hand in hand. Nehru was intent to harness and fully exploit the natural resources of India for the benefit of his countrymen. The most distinctive, and often debated feature of Nehru’s economic policies, was the high level of state and central control that was exercised on the industrial and business sectors of the country. Nehru emphasized that the state would control almost all key areas of the country’s economy, either centrally or on a state-wise basis. His Socialist emphasis on state control somehow seemed to undermine his stress on industrial policies. The rigorous state laws and License rules put a great degree of restrain on the free execution of industrial policies. Even the farmers, along with the business personnel, found themselves to be at the receiving end of rigorous state control policies and high taxation. Poverty and unemployment were widespread throughout Nehru’s governance.

The Crisis period:

Towards the end of 1980s, India was facing a Balance of Payments (BoP) crisis, due to unsustainable borrowing and high expenditure. The Current Account Deficit (3.5 percent) in 1990-91 massively weakened the ability to finance deficit. The causes of this crisis were:

  • Break-up of the Soviet Bloc:
  •  Iraq-Kuwait War:
  •  Slow Growth of Important Trading Partners:
  •  Political Uncertainty and Instability:
  •  Loss of Investors’ Confidence:

Thus, the balance of payments situation came to the verge of collapse in 1991, mainly because the current account deficits were mainly financed by borrowing from abroad. The economic situation of India was critical; the government was close to default. With India’s foreign exchange reserves at USD 1.2 billion in January 1991 and depleted by half by June, an amount barely enough to cover roughly three weeks of essential imports, India was only weeks way from defaulting on its external balance of payment obligations.

DEMONETIZATION IN INDIA

14th December 2016

 

Bangalore, India

 

Bonjour les amis,  its me again to publish an article about one of the ongoing debates in India – demonetization.

Before we start it is important to first clarify the precise definition of a broad term such as this. So what is demonetization?? Investopedia defines it as the act of stripping a currency unit of its status as legal tender in order to fabricate certain changes that the government wishes to make. This alteration in currencies consequently impacts the economic status of a country .

In India, this act was passed with a sole motive of eradicating black money stored in cash and take the first steps against money laundering as a whole. The issue of black money has been an arch rival to India’s economic growth ever since independence was first observed and this has only gone onto become a more sizeable issue over the passing decades. Economists have often introspected about their causes and removal but not many actions have been taken by governments majorly dominated by Congress leaders. Then ,why is there so much opposition to demonetization which can be looked at as a mere first step taken for combating  money laundering??? The answer to this is deep rooted and a diverse set of aspects must be considered before a conclusion is reached. In the following few paragraphs I will speak as an economist presenting facts rather than an Indian citizen supporting or criticizing the policy.

This policy has taken a serious toll on trade and the equilibrium of demand and supply in markets. With lesser monetary flow, demand has gone down due to which manufacturers have stopped creating more goods which in turn had brought down the supply. I personally feel that for a developing country like India these kind of situations can hamper economic growth and depreciate our economy. This ideology is heavily linked with the timing of imposing this policy and the government perhaps could have waited a few more years before doing so. In addition, black money is stored in other forms such as gold, properties and in bank accounts so demonetization does not address the major issue. When we observe the policy on a macro scale it offers quite less and has more drawbacks. When time period is considered; when we think of it on a long term basis it can be of great advantage but the short term consequences cannot be undermined. Also, the micro economical situation needs to be observed.

India has a rural population of a staggering 67% of the total population many of whom are not exposed banks and e-wallets. These people are heavily reliant on solid cash which is why the controversies surrounding demonetization have rose. In the eyes of a rural citizen every note of money carries a substantial significance and their deficit can have grave implications and can directly affect their lives. With a shortage of currency, people are  thronging banks to receive their share of cash. Due to this, some people are unable to pay for themselves even during emergency scenarios.

Taking advantage of this situation the opposition parties have sympathized with these people and have created raucous in the parliament and are desperately trying to turn this whole situation into a fiasco. This political battle have raised doubts in the minds of the people because of which the merits of this policy are overshadowed by their drawbacks and people no longer see the bigger picture. The prime minister has pleaded with the people to bear with him for a few months and promises a drastic improvement in the situation.

On one side, the government has announced that more policies will follow shortly to put a full stop to the long lasting crisis of money laundering and black money. However, on the other hand these policies affects the people in adverse ways and may have serious repercussions in the future. Also, there are various political parties who act as hurdles and stand between the government and the people to prevent them from achieving their goals.

It is challenging to decide what is right and what’s not but all that can be said is that no government in India’s history has taken such a stern decision and addressed a major problem such as this. There may be inconveniences but I feel it is the role of every Indian citizen to respect this decisions and believe in the government. If the policy is a success then his will go down as one of the best decisions probably in the history of Indian economics but for now a sense of hope is all that we people have.

 

signing off……….Akarsh

MY BIG IDEA

5th November 2016

 

Bangalore, India

 

Ola everyone!! Today I’m going to tell you’ll about this competition I went to with my partner also my classmate Rohan which we won. yippeee!! In this competition we had to create our own business proposition and present it to a group of extremely well qualified judges in the final round. There were two preliminary rounds before.  This was a school level competition and schools from different cities took part so there was fierce competition. So, in this article I am going to share with you’ll my business idea. Here it goes:

 

logo

The name of my business venture is Let’s Park.

 

Why, Where and to Who?

WHY- ◉Avoid wasting time trying to park every time you reach a destination

WHERE- ◉To spread across all busy metro cities of India.

WHOM- ◉It can help anyone who is in desperate need of a parking spot

What’s the BIG Idea?

  • Let’s Park is an idea that will allow you to get yourself quick and hassle-free parking on demand.
  • Not only does it show you parking spots on the go but also allows you to pre book a parking spot.
  • Makes use of the G.P.S. to allow users access to a real time view of parking spots while parking their vehicle.
  • The introduction of on-road parking meters which will synchronize with the app instantly updating the status of parking slots once a spot has been booked on these.

The Parking Meters

  • A machine that works on the basis of ‘money for time’. For example Rs.40/- for 4 hours and Rs.15/- for every additional hour.
  • It will be set up all over the city and will be counted as the company’s infrastructural requirement.
  • Key player in the revenue generation model.

Our Biz model

  • Tying up with malls and other private institutions to use their parking spaces which can be booked through our app and payment been made online.
  • We first acquire Govt. permit to manage public parking spaces and request a list of all legal and registered parking spaces in the city.
  • Then we set up parking meters in all the acquired parking lots.
  • Customers can easily book the available parking spaces through these parking meters and this is updated on our app.
  • Tying up with already existing apps such as “bookmyshow”, for reservations of parking. This helps increase the face value of our business.

Peaks and Valleys

Peaks:

  • Our app is a unique one because the synchronization of parking meters and an app is the first of its kind in India and this increases the efficiency exponentially.
  • Time saving, low cost and customer friendly.
  • If all the spaces are full the app redirects you to the nearest one.

Valleys:

  • Maintaining our revenue so that the operations are sustainable and profitable
  • Managing the technical situation and chances of technical failures of our business I.e. the app and the parking meters.

The ‘Cha-Ching

The two revenue generation systems:

  1.  The money collected through the parking meters.
  2.  Money collected from reservations made through the app.

 

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signing off……………Akarsh

 

ABOUT ME

25th October 2016

 

 

Bangalore, India

 

Hello viewers and welcome again to akarshbvasisht.com.

As I mentioned on my home page this blog will comprise of various kinds of articles but for my very first post I thought it best to first fully introduce myself and give you’ll a little sneak peek into my life.

To begin with I am a student presently in my junior year  or 11th grade in India. I was born here but ended up living in different nooks and corners of the world like Netherlands and Sri Lanka . However, I am now back where my journey began and am looking forward to my good days here. To summarize my life in India in one word I can say -monotonous. As i have struck high school, life here has become much more tedious and literally a lot of sweat has to be broken just to achieve little success. Studies here is probably best described as a rat race. Well I choose to say that because imagine 4 lac people aiming for 10K seats in colleges. “Welcome to India”. So much like many other students I too have taken an alternative easier route which is seeking admission into foreign universities. That’s right I’m a SAT aspirant and am hoping to get into one of the many great universities abroad.

But hey India has many positives as well such as the people, the diverse culture and its preeminent natural features. The people of India are warm in nature and are always ready to extend their arms for offering help.

Moving on, some of my hobbies are to play keyboard and reading books. I am a karate black belt which I received at the age of 10. Apart from this I am a huge sports enthusiast and I play soccer and badminton majorly although I have won no major accolades in sports.

So, that briefly sums up my life in India and as a conclusion I can say that my life here is like a maze but once my path gets clear there’s no stopping me from reaching my destination.

 

Signing off………Akarsh